Sacred Sites of Ancient Greece – part2

Sanctuary of Poseidon and Athena at Sounion

The safe haven at Sounion is perhaps of the main asylum in Attica. Irregular finds highlight the end that the site was possessed in the ancient period however there is no proof of strict practice at such an early date. “Sounion Hiron” (safe haven of Sounion) is first referenced in the Odyssey, as the spot where Menelaos quit during his return from Troy to cover his helmsman, Phrontes Onetorides.

The finds of the seventh century B.C. are various and demonstrate the presence of coordinated faction in two places of the projection: at the southern edge where the temenos of Poseidon was arranged, and around 500 m. to its NE, where the safe-haven of Athena was laid out.

Significant votive contributions were devoted during the sixth century B.C., yet the engineering type of the two safe-havens stayed unassuming until the start of the fifth century B.C. when the Athenians started the development of a forcing poros sanctuary in the temenos of Poseidon.

The structure was rarely finished, however, as both the sanctuary and the contributions were annihilated by the Persians in 480 B.C. In the next many years, Sounion, similar to the remainder of Attica, prospered, and a significant structure project was embraced at the two safe havens. Toward the finish of the fifth hundred years and during the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians sustained the Sounion cape.

From the first century B.C. onwards, the safe havens progressively declined and Pausanias, who cruised along the shoreline of the projection during the second century A.D., was wrongly thought to be the noticeable sanctuary on the highest point of the slope as the sanctuary of Athena.

The site of the sanctuary was known for the next hundreds of years, as is demonstrated by portrayals of present-day voyagers, who visited Sounion before the unearthings began, as well as by spray paintings on the stones, among which, that made by Lord Byron.

Limited unearthings in the asylum of Poseidon were led in 1825 by the Dilettanti and by the German draftsman W. Doerpfeld. The orderly investigation was embraced somewhere in the range of 1897 and 1915 by the Athens Archeological Society, under the course of Val. Stais, with the coordinated effort of A. Orlandos. Starting around 1994, the Archeological Society has been doing unearthings at the Fortress.

It is arranged in the southernmost, most elevated piece of the projection. The region was leveled off and upheld through holding walls on the north and west sides. A Propylon was developed on the north side, and porticoes along the north and the east for the convenience of the explorers. The site was overwhelmed by the Classical sanctuary.

The sculptural enrichment of the sanctuary, made of Parian marble, is protected in unfortunate condition. The frieze of the east side portrayed Centauromachy, and the east pediment (of which just a situated female figure is safeguarded) presumably portrayed the battle between Poseidon and Athena for the mastery of Attica. The two antae of the east side and a few of the sections of the east piece of the sanctuary are as yet safeguarded today, while the west is totally obliterated.

Propylon – Porticoes

The Propylon was developed somewhat later than the Classical sanctuary and was made of marble and poros. It is Doric, a distyle in antis on the two sides (north and south). A parcel wall inside the structure has three entryways, of which the center one is more extensive and has an incline.

A little rectangular lobby is connected on the west mass of the Propylon, while porticoes are raised along the north and west sides of the safe-haven. The north of these porticoes is bigger and somewhat prior.

The Fortress

The Sounion cape was sustained in 412 B.C. during the Peloponnesian War, to control and get the boats conveying oats to Athens. The utilization of different materials and development strategies is most likely the aftereffect of fixes and increments made during the Chremonides’ War and the next years (266-229 B.C.). The safe haven of Poseidon possesses the SE end of the stronghold.

The wall begins at the NE corner, reaches out toward the north, and goes toward the west. Shipyards for the shielding of two conflict ships were developed on the coast, at the west finish of the north part of the stronghold. Inside the fort, unearthings have exposed pieces of a focal road, stays of houses, and water reservoirs.

Sanctuary of Athena

It is arranged on a slope 500 m. to the NE of the Sanctuary of Poseidon. The region was leveled off and encased with a poros polygonal circuit wall. Inside the encased region were raised the Temple of Athena, a more modest sanctuary toward the north, and special stepped areas.

A profound pit on the SE side of the temenos was utilized as a store for the Archaic contributions obliterated by the Persians. The oval peribolos to the NW of the temenos has been recognized as the “Heroon of Phrontes”.

Temple of Athena

It has a rectangular cella, estimating 16,4 x 11,6 m. The underpinning of the platform supporting the clique sculpture is safeguarded on the west side of the cella, while four Ionic segments in the middle upheld the rooftop. One of the eccentricities of the sanctuary, referenced additionally by Vitruvius, is the presence of an external corridor just on the east and south sides.

A few researchers consider that the sanctuary of Athena Sounias was recreated after the mid-fifth century B.C., while others accept that the cella was worked during the Archaic time frame, was fixed after the Persian obliterations, and the corridor was included in the center of the fifth century B.C. A second eccentricity of the safe haven is the position of the raised area toward the south of the sanctuary.

Small Temple

Little, Doric, prostyle sanctuary estimating 5 x 6.80 m., arranged toward the north of the Athena Temple. The platform of the faction sculpture is protected inside the cella. The date of the design and the character of the god revered is as yet a question of discussion.

Agora of Athens

The Agora was the core of antiquated Athens, the focal point of political, business, regulatory and social action, the strict and social focus, and the seat of equity. The site was involved without break in all times of the city’s set of experiences. It was utilized as a private and internment region as soon as the Late Neolithic period (3000 B.C.). From the get-go in the sixth hundred years, in the hour of Solon, the Agora turned into a public region.

After a progression of fixes and redesigning, it arrived at its last rectangular structure in the second century B.C. Broad structure action happened after the serious harm made by the Persians in 480/79 B.C., by the Romans in 89 B.C. also, and by the Herulae in A.D. 267 while, after the Slavic attack in A.D. 580, It was continuously deserted. From the Byzantine period until after 1834, when Athens turned into the capital of the free Greek express, the Agora again evolved as a local location.

The principal unearthing efforts were done by the Greek Archeological Society in 1859-1912, and by the German Archeological Institute in 1896-97. In 1890-91, a profound channel cut for the Athens-Peiraeus Railway exposed broad remaining parts of old structures.

In 1931 the American School of Classical Studies began the efficient unearthings fully supported by J. Rockefeller and went on until 1941. Work was continued in 1945 and is as yet proceeding. To reveal the entire region of the Agora it was important to obliterate around 400 current structures covering a complete area of ca. 12 hectares.

In the nineteenth century, the four monster figures of Giants and Tritons at the veneer of the Gymnasium were re-established by the Greek Archeological Society. In the years 1953-56, the Stoa of Attalos was reproduced to turn into a historical center and in a similar period, the Byzantine church of Aghios Apostoloi worked around A.D. 1000, was re-established by the American School.

Somewhere in the range of 1972 and 1975, reclamation and conservation work was done at the Hephaisteion; the region was gotten free from vegetation, and the top of the sanctuary was fixed in 1978 by the Archeological Service.